Primary Tumor (T)
TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed
T0 No evidence of primary tumor
T1 Clinically unapparent tumor that is not palpable nor visible by imaging
T1a Tumor incidental histologic finding in 5% or less of tissue resected
by TURP.
T1b Tumor incidental histologic finding in more than 5% of tissue
resected by TURP.
T1c Tumor identified by needle biopsy
T2 Palpable tumor but confined within the prostate gland
T2a Tumor involves one half of one lobe or less.
T2b Tumor involves more than half of one lobe, but not both lobes.
T2c The tumor involves both lobes.
T3 Tumor extends through the prostatic capsule
T3a Unilateral extracapsular extension
T3b Bilateral extracapsular extension
T3c Tumor invades the seminal vesicle(s)
T4 Tumor is fixed or invades adjacent structures other than seminal
T4a Tumor invades any of the bladder neck, external sphincter or the rectum.
T4b Tumor invades levator muscles, and/or is fixed to the pelvic wall.
Primary Tumor, Pathologic (pT)
pT2 Organ confined
pT2a Unilateral
pT2b Bilateral
pT3 Extraprostatic extension
pT3a Extraprostatic extension
pT3b Seminal vesicle invasion
pT4 Invasion of bladder, rectum

Regional Lymph Nodes (N)
NX Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
N1 Metastasis in a single lymph node, 2 cm or smaller
N2 Metastasis to on or more lymph nodes 2 cm or larger, but non
larger than 5 cm at its greatest diameter.
N3 Metastasis to a lymph node greater than 5 cm at its greatest diameter.

Distant Metastasis (M)
MX Distant metastasis cannot be assessed
M0 No distant Metastasis
M1 Distant metastasis
M1a Nonregional lymph nodes
M1b Bone(s)
M1 Other site(s)

Joel T Nowak MA, MSW